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The Kaleidoscope of Lebanese Politics

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The Kaleidoscope of Lebanese Politics

On November 10, 2018, Posted by , In Information Reports,Lebanon,Middle East, With No Comments
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Written by Steven Tibbitts

 

Lebanese politics are currently centered on forming a new government that can help Lebanon address its pressing economic issues (Perry 2018; Al-Jazeera 2018). However, the process is strongly hindered by spats on the role of Hezbollah and its affiliates in the new unity government (Macaron 2018; Anbar 2018; Dakroub 2018).

To understand Lebanese politics, a few key points are important to consider. As a result of the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1989), the Lebanese cabinet is divided equally between Muslims (which includes Sunni and Shia) and Christians (Ajroudi and Chughtai 2018). Each group is further divided into multiple parties and sects. All compete in a confessional parliamentary system that focuses on religious-political parties and requires the country’s President to be a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister to be a Sunni Muslim, and the Speaker of Parliament a Shia Muslim (Ajroudi and Chughtai 2018). Major political players include Hezbollah and its allies (called the March 8 coalition), Sunni Prime Minister Saad Hariri and his Future Movement (nominally backed by Saudi Arabia), the Christian groups Lebanese Forces  (LF—allied with Hariri) and Free Patriotic Movement (FPM—allied to Hezbollah and party of President Michel Aoun), the Amal party (Shia, part of March 8 coalition), the Progressive Socialist Party (PSP), and multiple others (Ajroudi and Chughtai 2018; Dakroub 2018; Daily Star 2018; Bassam and Perry 2018).

In May of this year, parliamentary elections were held for the first time in nine years, and the voting incorporated various electoral changes that enabled Hezbollah and its allies to perform well (Wittes 2018; Chebaro 2018; Ajroudi and Chughtai 2018). This is the latest evidence of Hezbollah’s growing involvement in politics, which started after it allegedly assassinated Prime Minister Rafik Hariri (father of current Prime Minister) in 2005 and has continued with a combination of domestic politicking and a campaign of violence and coercion (Macaron 2018; Chebaro 2018; Wittes 2018). Hezbollah is labeled as a terrorist group by the United States, and the Shiite group holds large political sway in Lebanon, especially among Shiite populations (Ghaddar 2018; Hashem 2018) However, that support has been waning due to economic mismanagement and the consequences of Hezbollah’s intense involvement in the Syrian conflict (Ghaddar 2018; Macaron 2018; Hashem 2018).

Despite the parliamentary results, Lebanon has still not created a government. Much of the problem stems from determining representation in the cabinet (Diab 2018; Daily Star 2018). Earlier, a dispute between the LF and the FPM created a stalemate due to differing ideas about allocating representation in the cabinet, but the LF eventually relented to FPM demands (Al-Jazeera 2018; Daily Star 2018). However, the newest problem is Hezbollah’s insistence that six Sunni MP’s who are not tied to the Future Movement (though are allied with Hezbollah and its allies) gain cabinet representation (Daily Star 2018; Asharq Al-Awsat 2018; Perry 2018). This is seen as political maneuvering by Hezbollah to secure more influence in the new government, though interestingly President Aoun (a Hezbollah ally) stands with Hariri on the matter (Anbar 2018; Dakroub 2018). Hezbollah is also believed to be trying to obtain control over the Health Ministry in Lebanon as a way of securing additional funding for its supporters and avoiding US sanctions (Macaron 2018; Ghaddar 2018; Bassam and Perry 2018).

How the government is formed and who controls what is very important to Lebanon’s future. The country faces a massive economic crisis and vast government debt (Asharq Al-Awsat 2018; Barrington 2018). Hezbollah’s terrorist activity threatens both Israelis and Lebanese citizens and has the potential to start a war between the two countries (Khodr 2018; Stratfor 2018; Kenner 2018; Haaretz 2018; Times of Israel and Agence France-Presse 2018; Kershner 2017). Moreover, Lebanon confronts the reality of large numbers of Syrian refugees in the country, the potential for internal fighting, public demands for better government services, and the threat of US sanctions over Hezbollah’s role in the Lebanese government (Global Conflict Tracker 2018; Macaron 2018; Ghaddar 2018; Wittes 2018; Hashem 2018).

 

Works Cited

Ajroudi, Asma and Alia Chughtai. 2018. “Lebanon elections 2018: Politics as usual.” Al-Jazeera, May 2. Accessed November 8, 2018. https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/lebanon-elections-2018-politics-usual-180501091710689.html

Al-Jazeera. 2018. “Lebanon: ‘Breakthrough’ on forming unity government.” Al-Jazeera, October 29. Accessed November 9, 2018. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/10/lebanon-breakthrough-forming-unity-government-181029120957760.html

Anbar, Hanna. 2018. “Broader designs.” Daily Star, November 9. Accessed November 9, 2018. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/Opinion/Editorial/2018/Nov-09/468737-broader-designs.ashx

Asharq Al-Awsat. 2018. “Aoun: Efforts Must Focus on Economy, Investments.” Asharq Al-Awsat, November 9. Accessed November 9, 2018. https://aawsat.com/english/home/article/1455771/aoun-efforts-must-focus-economy-investments

Asharq Al-Awsat. 2018. “Sunnis Meet at Lebanon’s Dar al-Fatwa amid Cabinet Deadlock.” Asharq Al-Awsat, November 9. Accessed November 9, 2018. https://aawsat.com/english/home/article/1455601/sunnis-meet-lebanons-dar-al-fatwa-amid-cabinet-deadlock

Barrington, Lisa. 2018. “Lebanon cenbank head: a new govt will reduce risks, rates in economy.” Reuters, November 7. Accessed November 9, 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/lebanon-economy/lebanon-cenbank-head-a-new-govt-will-reduce-risks-rates-in-economy-idUSL8N1XI80C

Bassam, Leila and Tom Perry. 2018. “Hezbollah eyes bigger role in next Lebanon government.” Reuters, May 23. Accessed November 9, 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-lebanon-election-hezbollah/hezbollah-eyes-bigger-role-in-next-lebanon-government-idUSKCN1IO30O

Chebaro, Mohamed. 2018. “How will Hezbollah act in Lebanon’s new government?” Arab News, October 31. Accessed November 8, 2018. http://www.arabnews.com/node/1397146

Daily Star. 2018. “Hezbollah criticizes Hariri over Sunni MPs representation.” Daily Star, November 8. Accessed November 8, 2018. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2018/Nov-08/468672-hezbollah-criticizes-hariri-over-sunnis-mps-representation.ashx

Dakroub, Hussein. 2018. “Hezbollah: No compromise on Sunni MPs’ representation.” Daily Star, November 8. Accessed November 9, 2018. https://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2018/Nov-08/468635-hezbollah-no-compromise-on-sunni-mps-representation.ashx

Diab, Youssef. 2018. “Sources: Most of New Lebanese Govt. Structure Ready.” Asharq Al-Awsat, October 9. Accessed November 9, 2018. https://aawsat.com/english/home/article/1420981/sources-most-new-lebanese-govt-structure-ready

Ghaddar, Hanin. 2018. “Why Does Hezbollah Want Lebanon’s Health Ministry?” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, October 19. Accessed November 8, 2018. https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/why-does-hezbollah-want-lebanons-health-ministry

Global Conflict Tracker. 2018. “Political Instability in Lebanon.” Council on Foreign Relations, last updated November 9, 2018. Accessed November 9, 2018. https://www.cfr.org/interactives/global-conflict-tracker#!/conflict/political-instability-in-lebanon

Haaretz. 2018. “Report: Western Intelligence Believes Iran Intensifying Advanced Weapons Shipments to Hezbollah.” Haaretz, October 19. Accessed November 8, 2018. https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/iran/report-iran-intensifies-advanced-weapons-shipments-to-hezbollah-1.6573987

Hashem, Ali. 2018. “Hezbollah’s Journey from Syria’s Battlefield to Lebanon’s Political Minefield.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, August 28. Accessed November 9, 2018. https://carnegie-mec.org/2018/08/28/hezbollah-s-journey-from-syria-s-battlefield-to-lebanon-s-political-minefield-pub-77115

Kenner, David. 2018. “Why Israel Fears Iran’s Presence in Syria.” The Atlantic, July 22. Accessed November 8, 2018. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2018/07/hezbollah-iran-new-weapons-israel/565796/

Kershner, Isabel. 2017. “Iran Building Weapons Factories in Lebanon and Syria, Israel Says.” New York Times, August 29. Accessed November 8, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/29/world/middleeast/iran-missiles-lebanon-israel-.html

Khodr, Zeina. 2018. “Lebanon denies Israel’s Hezbollah missile sites claim.” Al-Jazeera, October 2. Accessed November 8, 2018. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/10/lebanon-denies-israels-hezbollah-missile-sites-claim-181002060446051.html

Macron, Joe. 2018. “US warns Lebanon that Hezbollah Cabinet pick would cross ‘red line.’” Al-Monitor, October 23. Accessed November 8, 2018. https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2018/10/lebanon-government-hezbollah-health-ministry-us-sanctions.html

Perry, Tom. 2018. “Lebanon’s Hezbollah says Hariri must resolve government row.” Reuters, November 8. Accessed November 8, 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-lebanon-government/lebanons-hezbollah-says-hariri-must-resolve-government-row-idUSKBN1ND24B

Stratfor. 2018. “The Missile Arsenal at the Heart of the Israeli-Iranian Rivalry.” Stratfor, August 8. Accessed November 8, 2018. https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/missile-arsenal-heart-israeli-iranian-rivalry

Times of Israel and Agence France-Presse. 2018. “Israel derides Lebanon for what it says is cover-up of Hezbollah missiles sites.” Times of Israel, October 1. Accessed November 8, 2018. https://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-derides-lebanon-for-what-it-says-is-cover-up-of-hezbollah-missiles-sites/

Wittes, Tamara Cofman. 2018. “Three observations after observing the Lebanese elections.” Brookings Institute, May 17. Accessed November 9, 2018. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2018/05/17/three-observations-after-observing-the-lebanese-elections/

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